This is a continuation of the two-part publication about the cross-chain relay token concept. The focus of this article is to describe how GTON is used as a proxy token when converting between native tokens of different blockchains without using bridges directly.

A token in the middle

In Cross-Chain Relay Token — Part 1 (Wrapped Tokens), the use of GTON as an AMM relay token was considered, which allows one to trade wrapped assets with minimal slippage, provided that the incentives are set up properly, i.e. …

In this article, we explain GTON’s use as a proxy token for pairing wrapped tokens with liquid assets on destination chains, enabling an interconnected system of pools with fast and low-slippage token swaps.

GTON — Cross-Chain Relay Token

Token in the middle…

Bancor’s original idea of the “relay token” $BNT was groundbreaking, but a bit ahead of its time and therefore did not find much traction. Nowadays, we observe a growing demand for cross-chain technologies and tokens in DeFI, and it might be time to revive this approach in the form of a cross-chain relay token.

Graviton is designed for DeFi liquidity incentivization with a seamless, low-fee inter-chain UX.

For the last three years, I have been all-in on Web3, drawn to this field by the opportunities that decentralization technologies and smart contracts afford to us. It so happens that in the DeFi space of today, most opportunity lies with Ethereum. It provides a vast range of DeFi solutions and has ample liquidity, albeit hindered by exorbitant gas fees and frequent network congestion. …

Over the past few weeks, the governance token of Neutrino Protocol, or NSBT, has rapidly gained popularity and attention as a counterpart to MKR, SNX or YFI, which provides a high-yield staking and high-volatility trading tool, besides its basic governance functionality. Continuing the tradition of open improvement proposals for Neutrino Protocol, today I would like to offer a new concept for the discussion of the community of NSBT holders. I call it the Moon Factor.

The status quo

The current mechanic described in the Base Forth article allows for the recapitalization of the Neutrino Protocol system at the times when the collateral coefficient (BR) is adjusting, allowing for some additional NSBT to be released and increasing the level of overcollateralization in the Neutrino Protocol. When NSBT is bought from the contract, it increases the value locked in the USDN contract. At a certain value of BR (backing ratio), the reserve price starts to rise, so users have an incentive to buy cheaper, at the targeted BR value. …

The Neutrino protocol is designed to be a universal toolkit for tokenization of real world financial assets. A potential way forward for the protocol is to make it easier for holders to diversify their portfolios, introducing assets pegged to financial instruments other than national currencies, such as stocks or indices. Whereas USDN stablecoin is likely going to remain the most popular Neutrino-based asset due to its sheer stability and a wide potential scope of application, the integration of a different collateralization mechanic would allow for the creation of hundreds of synthetic assets with a more extreme volatility profile. This idea was first proposed in the vision for Neutrino 2020 and was called Collider. It was then speculated that Collider could open ways to tokenize such popular assets as BTC, GOLD, SNP500 etc. Today, we present more details on the concept based on new utility of NSBT (Neutrino Base Token).


Absorbing volatility of highly unstable assets requires an efficient mechanism of overcollateralization. In this proposal, we introduce new mechanics that would allow for issuing BTCN, GLDN, and other speculative DeFo assets based on Neutrino protocol. The basic underlying concept is to create a collateralization algorithm that could generate autostaking BTCN and GLDN (or other highly volatile assets, or sDeFo — “speculative DeFo”), utilizing USDN as a basic collateral, and also NSBT as an overcollateralization token to back the synthetic peg.

Let’s overview the algorithm using BTCN as an example. The system uses three tokens: USDN, NSBT, and nVault — an…


This document is a specialized technical description of one of the potential implementations of a second layer protocol over Gravity, a blockchain-/token-agnostic decentralized oracle protocol [1].

The SuSy protocol prescribes an implementation of cross-chain transfers of digital assets (tokens) in blockchain networks that support smart contracts, focused primarily on popular blockchains with varying architectures, consensuses and cryptography. SuSy is centered exclusively around technical implementation of transfers, without bringing any incentive models for cross-chain transfer providers.

In addition, we describe the most popular inter-chain communication solutions such as Polkadot, Cosmos Hub, Rainbow and RenVM, as a backdrop for the new solution…

Photo: just a random photo of ‘curve’ from the internet and meme. Here we should have some fancy pic of ‘Bonding Curve


In this article, I present my personal proposal on the architecture, mechanics, and the technical implementation of the Neutrino Base tokens ($NSBT) tokenomics.

This proposal is published for consideration and public discussion to all teams working on Neutrino, large holders of $USDN, $NSBT, and $WAVES, as well as large market makers and system players in the Waves ecosystem.

The core idea of this proposal can be summarized as follows: decoupling of $NSBT market price from $WAVES volatility.


Neutrino, a protocol of real-world asset tokenization, is regularly improved and updated so that the services behind it remain as useful and safe…

Photo: LHC is the world’s largest and most powerful particles accelerator and generator


My name is Aleksei Pupyshev, and I’m a co-author of Neutrino and Gravity protocols, projects started within the Waves ecosystem and aimed to become gateways for mass adoption of open finance applications (aka DeFi).

In the beginning of spring of 2020, a team of Neutrino developers, consisting of various organizations and individuals, published an article with a vision for the development of the protocol for the current year (“2020 Vision article”).

In this article, I present my personal proposal on the architecture, mechanics, and the technical implementation of one of the extensions described in the Vision article, called Collider.




An organization represented by rules encoded as a computer program that is transparent, controlled by shareholders and not influenced by a central government — Decentralised Autonomous Organisation (DAO).

We can see a lot of examples of DAOs, where people are supporting innovations to be implemented in different public blockchain ecosystems. The first DAOs were Dash and Bitshares, others are The DAO, Digix, Aragon, District0X, and MolochDAO. Despite the fact that The DAO has been hacked DAOs, have a huge potential to help different groups of people collaborate.

More than one year ago my team — Ventuary was involved in…

Aleksei Pupyshev

Tech Ξntrepreneur, Lobster

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